The accentuation of Hebrew adheres strictly to the rules of Biblical Hebrew , including the secondary stress on syllables with a long vowel before a shva. However it is not pronounced after a prefixed u- and : ubne , not u-bene.
Vocal shva , segol short e and tzere long e are all pronounced like the 'e' in "bed": there is no distinction except in length. Amsterdam, vocal shva is pronounced [a] when marked with gangya a straight line next to the vowel symbol, equivalent to meteg , and as [i] when followed by the letter yodh : thus va-nashubah and bi-yom but be-Yisrael.
The differentiation between kamatz gadol and kamatz katan is made according to purely phonetic rules without regard to etymology, which occasionally leads to spelling pronunciations at variance with the rules laid down in the grammar books. For example, all , when unhyphenated, is pronounced "kal" rather than "kol" in "kal ngatsmotai" and " Kal Nidre " , and noon is pronounced "tsahorayim" rather than "tsohorayim". This feature is shared by other Sephardic groups, but is not found in Israeli Hebrew. It is also found in the transliteration of proper names in the King James Version such as Naomi , Aholah and Aholibah.
Although all Sephardic liturgies are similar, each group has its own distinct liturgy. Many of these differences are a product of the syncretization of the Spanish liturgy and the liturgies of the local communities where Spanish exiles settled. Other differences are the result of earlier regional variations in liturgy from pre-expulsion Spain.
As compared with other Sephardic groups, the minhag of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews is characterised by a relatively low number of cabbalistic additions. In the printed siddurim of the midth century, " Lekhah Dodi " and the Mishnaic passage Bammeh madlikin are also not yet included, but these are included in all newer siddurim of the tradition except for the early West London and Mickve Israel Savannah Reform prayerbooks, both of which have Spanish and Portuguese roots.
Of other, less conspicuous, elements, a number of archaic forms can be mentioned--including some similarities with the Italian and Western Ashkenazi traditions. The Livorno Leghorn tradition, however, includes many of the cabbalistic additions found in most other Sephardi traditions. The current London minhag is generally close to the Amsterdam minhag, but follows the Livorno tradition in some details--most notably in the Birkat hammazon. One interesting feature of the tradition at least in New York and Philadelphia is that, when reading the haftarah on Simhat Torah and Shabbat Bereshit, the Hatan Torah and Hatan Bereshit chant two extra verses pertaining to bridegrooms from Isaiah and at the end of the standard haftarot for the days themselves.
This seems to be a unique remnant of the old tradition of reading Isaiah if a bridegroom who had been married the previous week was present in synagogue.
REFRESHING FRUIT SORBET RECIPES Original (PDF)
The ritual music of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews differs from other Sephardic music in that it is influenced by Western European Baroque and Classical music to a relatively high degree. Not only in Spanish and Portuguese communities, but in many others in southern France  and northern Italy,  it was common to commission elaborate choral compositions, often including instrumental music, for the dedication of a synagogue, for family events such as weddings and circumcisions and for festivals such as Hoshana Rabbah , on which the halachic restriction on instrumental music did not apply.
Already in , the sources tell us that harpsichords were used in the Spanish and Portuguese synagogues in Hamburg. Particularly in the Amsterdam community, but to some degree also in Hamburg and elsewhere, there was a flourishing of Classical music in the synagogues in the 18th century. There was formerly a custom in Amsterdam, inspired by a hint in the Zohar , of holding an instrumental concert on Friday afternoon prior to the coming in of the Shabbat, as a means of getting the congregants in the right mood for the Friday night service.
An important Jewish composer was Abraham Caceres ; music was also commissioned from non-Jewish composers such as Cristiano Giuseppe Lidarti , some of which is still used. The same process took place in Italy, where the Venetian community commissioned music from non-Jewish composers such as Carlo Grossi and Benedetto Marcello. Another important centre for Spanish and Portuguese Jewish music was Livorno, where a rich cantorial tradition developed, incorporating both traditional Sephardic music from around the Mediterranean and composed art music: this was in turn disseminated to other centres.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in particular in Italy at the time of the Italian unification , hazzanim sometimes doubled as opera singers, and some liturgical compositions from this period reflect this operatic character. This custom was introduced in London in the early 19th century. There are early precedents for the use of instrumental music in the synagogue originating in 17th century Italy as well as the Spanish and Portuguese communities of Hamburg and Amsterdam and in the Ashkenazic community of Prague.
As in most other communities until the rise of the Reform movement in the 19th century the use of instrumental music was not permitted on Shabbat or festivals. As a general rule, Spanish and Portuguese communities do not use pipe organs or other musical instruments during services. In the more traditional congregations, such as London and New York, a free-standing organ or electric piano is used at weddings or benot mitzvah although never on Shabbat or Yom Tob , in the same way as in some English Ashkenazi synagogues.
Two- and three-part harmony is relatively common, and Edwin Seroussi has shown that the harmonies are a reflection of more complex, four-part harmonies in written sources from the 18th century. The recitative style of the central parts of the service, such as the Amidah , the Psalms and the cantillation of the Torah is loosely related to that of other Sephardi and Mizra? There is a remoter affinity with the Babylonian and North African traditions: these are more conservative than the Syrian and Judaeo-Spanish Balkan, Greek, Turkish traditions, which have been more heavily influenced by popular Mediterranean, Turkish and Arabic music.
In other parts of the service, and in particular on special occasions such as the festivals, Shabbat Bereshit and the anniversary of the founding of the synagogue, the traditional tunes are often replaced by metrical and harmonized compositions in the Western European style. A characteristic feature of Oriental Sephardic music is the transposition of popular hymn tunes themselves sometimes derived from secular songs to important prayers such as Nishmat and Kaddish.
This occurs only to a limited extent in the Spanish and Portuguese ritual: such instances as exist can be traced to the book of hymns Imre no'am , published in Amsterdam by Joseph Gallego, a hazzan originating in Salonica. Spanish and Portuguese traditional cantillation has several unique elements.
Torah cantillation is divided into two musical styles. The first is the standard used for all regular readings. A similar but much more elaborate manner of cantillation is used on special occasions.
This is normally referred to as High Tangamim or High Na'um. It is used for special portions of the Torah reading, principally the Ten Commandments  but also Chapter 1 of Bereshit on Simchat Torah , the Shirat ha-Yam , the Song of Moses , the concluding sentences of each of the five books and several other smaller portions.
Spanish and Portuguese Torah cantillation has been notated several times since the 17th century. The melodies now in use, particularly in London, show some changes from the earlier notated versions and a degree of convergence with the Iraqi melody. The rendition of the Haftarah prophetic portion also has two or three styles.
The standard, used for most haftarot , is nearly identical with that of the Moroccan nusach. A distinctly more somber melody is used for the three haftarot preceding the ninth of Ab the "three weeks". On the morning of the Ninth of Ab a third melody is used for the Haftarah--although this melody is borrowed from the melody for the Book of Ruth.
- Una nueva laicidad (Spanish Edition);
- TRADING LIKE YOU VE Original (PDF)!
- String Quartet No. 1, Movement 1 - Score.
There is a special melody used for the Book of Esther : in London it is a cantillation system in the normal sense, while in New York and Amsterdam it is chant-like and does not depend on the Masoretic symbols. The books of Ruth, read on Shavuot , and Lamentations , read on the Ninth of Ab, have their own cantillation melodies as well.
There is no tradition of reading Ecclesiastes. Most Spanish and Portuguese communities have no tradition of liturgical reading of the Shir haShirim Song of Songs , unlike Ashkenazim who read it on Pesach and Oriental Sephardim who read it on Friday nights. However in the two weeks preceding Pesach a passage consisting of selected verses from that book is read each day at the end of the morning service.
The chant is similar but not identical to the chant for Shir haShirim in the Moroccan tradition, but does not exactly follow the printed cantillation marks. A similar chant is used for the prose parts of the book of Job on the Ninth of Ab. There is no cantillation mode for the books of Psalms , Proverbs and the poetic parts of Job. The chant for the Psalms in the Friday night service has some resemblance to the cantillation mode of the Oriental traditions, but is not dependent on the cantillation marks. Spanish and Portuguese Jewish.
Get Spanish and Portuguese Jewish essential facts below. View Videos or join the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish discussion. Western Sephardic Jews? City Synagogue or Community  Website Comments. Cork Portuguese congregation Founded either or , extinct by Madras Synagogue was demolished by the local government to make space for the construction of a municipal school.
Jewish Cemetery Chennai remains the only memoir of the once significant Jewish population of Chennai  . Closed down in because of political upheavals. Recife Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue to recently restored as museum and community centre. Escher Benjamin N. Frank R. The Brooklyn Rail. History of a Tragedy. Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture.
Jewish Virtual Library. London: Bloomsbury. In Gampel, Benjamin ed. Crisis and Creativity in the Sephardi World New York: Columbia University Press. New York: Oxford University Press. Olve Utne. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title link. The Montefiore Endowment. The Jewish Quarterly Review. Mohr Siebeck. Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. On the other hand, s is often pronounced [? The use of [?
Coincidentally, "g" following a vowel is pronounced as the approximant consonant  in modern Spanish but not in Portuguese. In both Ashkenazi and modern Hebrew, vocal shva is the indistinct vowel in French "le" and English "the" and sometimes disappears altogether. The book does not of course set out the tunes, but it names the songs that they were borrowed from. The term "High Tangamim" for the melody in question is borrowed from the ta'am 'elyon , for which it is used.
Many other Sephardic traditions use special melodies for these portions as well. However, the Spanish and Portuguese melody is different from most others. Italics mean community no longer exists. DT Next. The New Indian Express. The Paris Review. Summer-Fall Alfred A. The Times of Israel. Revised ed.
Related Kippur - Il giorno dellespiazione (Cooper Storie) (Italian Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved