This may help specify didactical factors that could help in teaching and learning of ICT. It is the stage of collection of data from the existing educational environment to assist the person conceiving the material to be able to conceive an appropriate material to help in ICT pedagogy. There are some factors that hinder the effective planning of ICT didactics such as the subject content, topics, associated skills, teacher and students behavior, learning and pedagogic strategies and assessment procedures.
Taking these as a yard stick for the conception of a didactic material will produce tool that will assist teachers with their instructional processes that will fit their pedagogic styles. This stage uses the information from the first stage to transform and convert it to didactical concepts that could help teachers to bridge the gap between general didactical knowledge and specific ICT knowledge.
This approach leads to the change of pedagogic strategies based on three steps: presentation, knowledge construction and discussion. The goal of this step is generating understanding of ICT concepts through situated examples, visualizations, and procedure overview.
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The objective of the construction step is to let students construct their own knowledge through involvement in realistic problem solving. The teacher works as mentor and facilitator of learning, not as a transmitter of knowledge. In addition, students could work together and collaborate in order to improve their learning. This fits well both with the cognitive and the constructivist learning theory. In the discussion step, students get the opportunity to raise questions regarding the specific ICT exercises or more general problems about the lesson.
In this phase, collaborative learning is done through teacher-managed dialogue with the students. This fits well with the social constructivist learning theory. Instruction involves the performance of a variety of teaching and classroom management activities such as proper rearrangement of didactics materials to assist students better understand the subject taught in classrooms. The methods or didactic material used by teachers to assess students has an effect in the learning process.
There are basically two forms of assessment, formative and summative assessment. The formative assessment permits the teacher to use for example oral questions to engage the students in a reflection exercise on what has been taught to grade their understanding and try to improve on the teaching for better understanding of the subject.
This phase helps teachers to develop their own ability to self-evaluate their own ICT teaching. During the teaching process, teachers benefit from evaluating and reflecting on how they have achieved their teaching goals. They may ask the following questions: What difficulties were encountered in each stage of the instructional process? What caused the difficulties and how could they be overcome?
What patterns can be perceived in the problems presented in the construction and dialogue steps?
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Feedback stage gives global information on the failures and successes in teaching and learning ICT in a classroom theory or practical to assist the teachers redesign their teaching material and make it better in relation to the results. According to Rautopuro et al ; there are three separate aspects of information and communication technology ICT in school education:. Learning ICT is more than the ability to operate and use a computer system. Hence, the acquisition of technical skills is only part of the problems encountered in teaching and learning ICT as a subject. Indeed, ICT education includes a sophisticated set of higher-order skills and cognitive abilities, such as analysing, designing, implementing, collecting and retrieving, organizing and managing, interpreting and representing, evaluating and creating information Drenoyianni, ICT as a practical subject deals with the ability to make use of software for problem solving.
It requires the acquisition of a number of ICT skills, e. At a simple level this give students variety during lessons. For example, the process of text composition in an ICT lesson with pen and paper can be compare in that during the ICT lesson, pupils are involved in copying and pasting of text, reformatting text, inserting and modifying graphics and file management. This gives students the choices of producing and presenting their work and raises their sense of control.
The opportunity to easily edit their work led to a sense of achievement. In an ICT lesson students also have more opportunities for going beyond the confines of the task. Thirdly, ICT is practical because what is learned in ICT can be put to good cross-curricular use, this because in school, ICT can be use to enhance teaching and learning of other subjects.
Lastly, what is learned in ICT can be put to good out-of-school use. Research indicates that teachers are both threatened by change and easy adaptations to these changes as time evolves with material content of ICT subjects. This needs different pedagogic approaches and didactic materials to be applied at each stage of teaching since content of application and exploitation software also change from one version to another.
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This change requires a modification of the curriculum, the teaching and learning methods to meet up with the evolution. ICT can be seen as a rapid changing subject when focus on the use of the World Wide Web and widespread use of mailing and texting. There are also changes in the capacity and speed of machines and changes in operating systems and interfaces. Education policymakers and planners must first of all be clear about what educational outcomes which is discussed above are being targeted.
These broad goals should guide the choice of technologies to be used and their modalities of use. The potential of each technology varies according to how it is used. Haddad and Draxler identify at least five levels of technology use in education: presentation, demonstration, drill and practice, interaction, and collaboration. Except for video technologies, drill and practice may likewise be performed using the whole range of technologies.
On the other hand, networked computers and the Internet are the ICTs that enable interactive and collaborative learning best; their full potential as educational tools will remain unrealized if they are used merely for presentation or demonstration. Radio and television have been used widely as educational tools since the s and the s, respectively. There are three general approaches to the use of radio and TV broadcasting in education: [ 21 ]. The radio lessons, developed around specific learning objectives at particular levels of mathematics, science, health and languages in national curricula, are intended to improve the quality of classroom teaching and to act as a regular, structured aid to poorly trained classroom teachers in under-resourced schools.
And with its economies of scale, it has proven to be a cost-effective strategy relative to other interventions. The programme was launched in Mexico in as a cost-effective strategy for expanding lower secondary schooling in small and remote communities.
Perraton describes the programme thus:. The strategy meant combining community issues into the programs, offering children an integrated education, involving the community at large in the organization and management of the school and stimulating students to carry out community activities. Assessments of Telesecundaria have been encouraging: drop out rates are slightly better than those of general secondary schools and significantly better than in technical schools.
In Asia, the 44 radio and TV universities in China including the China Central Radio and Television University , Universitas Terbuka in Indonesia, and Indira Ghandi National Open University have made extensive use of radio and television, both for direct class teaching and for school broadcasting, to reach more of their respective large populations. For these institutions, broadcasts are often accompanied by printed materials and audio cassettes. Each course consists of 15 minute lectures broadcast nationwide once a week for 15 weeks.
Courses are aired over University-owned stations from 6 am to 12 noon.
Students are also given supplemental print materials, face-to-face instruction, and online tutorials.. Often deployed with print materials, cassettes and CD-ROMS, school broadcasting, like direct class teaching,is geared to national curricula and developed for a range of subject areas.
But unlike direct class instruction, school broadcasting is not intended to substitute for the teacher but merely as an enrichment of traditional classroom instruction. School broadcasting is more flexible than IRI since teachers decide how they will integrate the broadcast materials into their classes. In developing countries, school broadcasts are often a result of a partnership between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Information. Audioconferencing involves the live real-time exchange of voice messages over a telephone network.
When low-bandwidth text and still images such as graphs, diagrams or pictures can also be exchanged along with voice messages, then this type of conferencing is called audiographic. Videoconferencing allows the exchange not just of voice and graphics but also of moving images. Web-based conferencing, as the name implies, involves the transmission of text, and graphic, audio and visual media via the Internet; it requires the use of a computer with a browser and communication can be both synchronous and asynchronous.
Teleconferencing is used in both formal and non-formal learning contexts to facilitate teacher-learner and learner-learner discussions, as well as to access experts and other resource persons remotely. In open and distance learning, teleconferencing is a useful tool for providing direct instruction and learner support, minimizing learner isolation.
For instance, an audiographic teleconferencing network between Tianjin Medical University in China and four outlying Tianjin municipalities was piloted in as part of a multi-year collaboration between Tianjin Medical University and the University of Ottawa School of Nursing funded by the Canadian International Development Agency.
The audio-graphic teleconferencing network aims to provide continuing education and academic upgrading to nurses in parts of Tianjin municipality where access to nursing education has been extremely limited. There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and the Internet, namely:.
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Learning about computers and the Internet focuses on developing technological literacy. It typically includes:. Learning with the technology means focusing on how the technology can be the means to learning ends across the curriculum. It includes:.
Technological literacy is required for learning with technologies to be possible, implying a two-step process in which students learn about the technologies before they can actually use them to learn. However, there have been attempts to integrate the two approaches. Learning through computers and the Internet combines learning about them with learning with them.
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